Mediterranean Festival of First
Labor Day, first observed on September
5, 1882 in New York City and led
by Irishman Peter McGuire, had its
roots in the labor exploitation of the
Industrial Revolution. In 1887, Oregon
became the first state officially to
recognize Labor Day.
2, 1838 Birth of Queen Lili'uokalani,
last sovereign of Hawaii, held
under house arrest and forced from her
throne by Americans intent on
exploiting Hawaiian exports.
Day of Tonan, or Tonantzin, Aztecan
mother goddess whose shrine was on
Tepeyac Hill in what is now Mexico
City, where the Virgin of
Guadalupe is said to have appeared to
Juan Diego in 1531.
6, 1860 Birth of Jane Addams, first
American woman to win the Nobel Peace
Prize (in 1931), first president
of the Women's International League
for Peace and Freedom, and founder of
Hull House in Chicago.
6, 1870 Louisa Ann Swain of Laramie,
Wyoming celebrated her 70th birthday by
voting -- the first woman officially to
cast a ballot in a US national election.
7, 2002 Rosh Hashanah, Jewish New Year.
Feast of the nativity of the Virgin
Mary, observed by Christians since
the mid-fifth century. It is the major
national holiday on the island of
9, 1834 A mob attacked Prudence
Crandall's school in Canterbury,
Connecticut, where she taught black
women. Previously jailed for breaking
the local law against teaching
"colored persons," Crandall
finally was forced to close her
school. Now it is a museum that
highlights black history and women's
11, 1877 Birth of Rosika Schwimmer,
Hungarian pacifist, suffrage leader,
and a founder of the Women's
International League for Peace and
Freedom and Campaign for World
Government (1937). She was denied US
citizenship in 1929 because she
refused to pledge to bear arms in
defense of the US.
12, 1867 Birth of Irene Joliot-Curie the
daughter of Pierre and Marie Curie,
she received Nobel Prize in Chemistry
14, 1728 Birth of Mercy Otis Warren,
who thumbed her nose at the British
and wrote much of the history of the
14, 1879 Birth of Margaret Sanger,
who thumbed her nose at the Comstock
Laws (forbidding distribution of birth
control information), and landed in
jail. She founded what is now Planned
16 Mexican Independence Day,
commemorating 1910 revolution ending
September 16, 2002 Yom Kippur,
JewishDay of Atonement
18, 1889 Jane Addams, Nobel Peace
Prize winner, and Ellen Gates Starr,
who linked art and labor causes,
opened Hull House to help immigrants
19 International Day of Peace.
22 Autumnal Equinox. Beginning of nine
days of the Eleusian rites,
beginning with a procession from
Athens to Eleusis. The festival honors
the cycle of life and celebrates the
ancient Divine Trinity -- Demeter
(Goddess of the Earth), Kore (Goddess
of the Underworld), and the child
22, 1692 Martha Corey and seven other
convicted "witches" were
hanged in Salem, Massachusetts
following a trial presided over by the
state's lieutenant governor.
Eleven people -- mostly women --
already had been murdered as witches
after being fingered by hysterical
girls. Some years later trial judges
allowed as they had made a mistake.
25 Day of Sedna, sea goddess of the
Arctic Inuit people.
25, 1847 Birth of Vinnie Ream, who
became a prolific sculptor. She
was 17 when she received a $10,000
commission to carve the exquisite
statue of President Lincoln that now
stands in the US Capitol Rotunda. A
replica of Vinnie Ream's "Sappho"
stands as a memorial to her in
Arlington National Cemetery.
30, 1983 Sally Ride rode into space --
the first US woman to do so.